India's last-wicket duo embarrass England
India's Bhuvneshwar Kumar (R) during the second day's play in the first Test match against England at Trent Bridge in Nottingham, on July 10, 2014 - by Andrew Yates
Number 10 Kumar, who does have a first-class hundred to his credit, was 46 not out while Shami, whose Test average before this match was 3.33, had made a first-class best unbeaten 39.
Their partnership was worth 87 after they'd come together at 346 for nine following a flurry of wickets.
The duo had surpassed India's previous highest 10th-wicket stand against England of 73 shared by Anil Kumble and Shanthakumaran Sreesanth at The Oval in 2007.
At lunch, India were well-placed at 342 for five, with skipper Mahendra Singh Dhoni 81 not out and Ravindra Jadeja 24 not out.
But a largely self-inflicted slump then saw them lose four wickets for two runs in 12 balls.
Left-hander Jadeja (25) was caught behind off all-rounder Ben Stokes and Dhoni too had added just one run to his interval score when, setting off for a needless single, he failed to beat James Anderson's direct hit from mid-off.
Test debutant Stuart Binny managed just one before steering Stokes to Joe Root at backward point, and so did Ishant Sharma -- bowled shouldering arms to Stuart Broad.
But England, without a win in eight Tests, then ran into Kumar and Shami.
England captain Alastair Cook deployed three men in a line from short mid-on to mid-wicket, an innovative ploy that had no effect.
Meanwhile the pacemen went round the wicket in a bid to 'rough' up the final-wicket pair but both batsmen were largely untroubled.
Shami proved just how little respect India had for Moeen Ali (none for 93 in 17 overs at tea) by clubbing the part-time off-spinner for four through mid-off to raise a fifty partnership in 102 balls.
India, on a still docile pitch, then went past 400 when Kumar edged Stokes beyond slip for a boundary.
Shami then struck a late-cut four off fast bowler Liam Plunkett that third man Broad simply didn't see.
With India nine down, the scheduled tea interval was delayed by 30 minutes but the extra time did England few favours.
There was further frustration for England when Shami, on 37, edged a cut off Plunkett through to wicketkeeper Matt Prior.
Cook, at silly point, was the only fielder to appeal, but umpire Bruce Oxenford ruled not out and, with Indian objections meaning there was no Decision Review System in use this series, the Australian's verdict stood.
India resumed Thursday on 259 for four with Murali Vijay 122 not out and Dhoni, who had won the toss, unbeaten on 50.
It had been a gruelling first day for England's four seamers on a flat pitch that had precious little pace and bounce.
In these circumstances, they could ill-afford to spurn chances.
But when Dhoni, still on his overnight score, drove loosely at a full-length Broad delivery, Prior, diving to his right, floored the one-handed catch.
Nevertheless, both Anderson and Broad, on his Nottinghamshire home ground, proved tough to get away.
Vijay's near eight-hour innings eventually ended when he was lbw to Anderson, having faced 361 balls, including 25 fours and a six.
He also put on 126 for the fifth wicket with Dhoni.